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Moodle 3 E-Learning Course Development Fourth Edition Create highly engaging e-learning courses with Moodle 3 Susan Smith Nash William Rice BIRMINGHAM - MUMBAI Moodle 3 E-Learning Course Development Fourth Edition Copyright © 2018 Packt Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embedded in critical articles or reviews. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this book to ensure the accuracy of the information presented. However, the information contained in this book is sold without warranty, either express or implied. Neither the authors, nor Packt Publishing or its dealers and distributors, will be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to have been caused directly or indirectly by this book. Packt Publishing has endeavored to provide trademark information about all of the companies and products mentioned in this book by the appropriate use of capitals. However, Packt Publishing cannot guarantee the accuracy of this information. Commissioning Editor: Amarabha Banerjee Acquisition Editor: Larissa Pinto Content Development Editor: Flavian Vaz Technical Editor: Vaibhav Dwivedi Copy Editor: Shaila Kusanale Project Coordinator: Devanshi Doshi Proofreader: Safis Editing Indexer: Pratik Shirodkar Graphics: Jason Monteiro Production Coordinator: Aparna Bhagat First published: June 2008 Second edition: August 2011 Third edition: June 2015 Fourth edition: May 2018 Production reference: 1250518 Published by Packt Publishing Ltd. Livery Place 35 Livery Street Birmingham B3 2PB, UK. ISBN 978-1-78847-219-7 www.packtpub.com To the memory of my mother, Mona Margaret Wicker Smith, for her continual support, encouragement, and belief in education and the importance of sharing knowledge – Susan Smith Nash mapt.io Mapt is an online digital library that gives you full access to over 5,000 books and video; s, as well as industry leading tools to help you plan your personal development and advance your career. For more information, please visit our website. Why subscribe? Spend less time learning and more time coding with practical eBooks and Videos from over 4,000 industry professionals Improve your learning with Skill Plans built especially for you Get a free eBook or video every month Mapt is fully searchable Copy and paste, print, and bookmark content PacktPub.com Did you know that Packt offers eBook versions of every book published, with PDF and ePub files available? You can upgrade to the eBook version at www.PacktPub.com and as a print book customer, you are entitled to a discount on the eBook copy. Get in touch with us at firstname.lastname@example.org for more details. At www.PacktPub.com, you can also read a collection of free technical articles, sign up for a range of free newsletters, and receive exclusive discounts and offers on Packt books and eBooks. Contributors About the authors Susan Smith Nash has been designing and developing online courses and programs for more than 15 years for education, training, and personal development. In addition to Moodle 3.x Teaching Techniques, Packt Publishing, she is the author of a number of Moodle books and training videos, including Moodle Course Design - Best Practices and Moodle for Training and Professional Development. Other Packt Publishing instructional videos include two on the Canvas Virtual Learning Environment. She has also authored Video-Assisted Mobile Learning for Writing Courses. William Rice is an e-learning professional from New York City. He has written books on Moodle, Blackboard, Magento, and software training. He enjoys building e-learning solutions for businesses and gains professional satisfaction when his courses help students. His hobbies include writing books, practicing archery near JFK Airport, and playing with his children. William is fascinated by the relationship between technology and society, how we create our tools, and how they shape us in turn. Married to an incredible woman who encourages his writing pursuits, he has two amazing sons. About the reviewers Donald Schwartz has been designing and managing Moodle since 2003. He is an expert on video e-learning course presentation and delivery to large and disparate clients. His clients include medical societies (AOA), engineering schools, a startup med-tech school, a distributed recruitment firm, and many of the ENR top 50 for their CAD software training. Don is the Principal of VectorSpect LLC, a New Hampshire USA based e-learning consultancy. Don has reviewed two other Packt publications: Gamification with Moodle and Moodle Administration Essentials. John Walker is a licensed professional engineer in industrial engineering and currently a licensed full-time teacher in computer science at Cleveland High School in Portland, OR. He has worked on GameMaker Essentials and the GameMaker Cookbook for Packt Publishing. John has used Moodle since 2005 and beyond administering Moodle and creating courses, has created Open Educational resources using Moodle. Packt is searching for authors like you If you're interested in becoming an author for Packt, please visit authors.packtpub.com and apply today. We have worked with thousands of developers and tech professionals, just like you, to help them share their insight with the global tech community. You can make a general application, apply for a specific hot topic that we are recruiting an author for, or submit your own idea. Table of Contents Preface 1 Chapter 1: A Guided Tour of Moodle Moodle's philosophy of learning A plan to create your learning site Step-by-step instructions to use Moodle Step 1 – Learning about the Moodle experience Step 2 – Installing Moodle Step 3 – Configuring your site Step 4 – Creating the framework for your learning site Step 5 – Making decisions about common settings Step 6 – Adding basic course material Step 7 – Making your courses interactive Step 8 – Evaluating your students Step 9 – Making your course social Step 10 – Adding collaborative activities Step 11 – Managing and extending your courses Step 12 – Taking the pulse of your course Applying the Moodle philosophy Adding static content Interactive and social course material Creating activities The Moodle experience The Moodle front page Arriving at the site Using moodlecloud.com The main menu Blocks The site description Available courses Inside a course The navigation bar Blocks The navigation block Sections Joining a discussion Completing a lesson Editing mode Normal mode versus editing mode The Edit icon The Delete icon 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 17 18 18 19 19 21 21 22 22 22 24 24 25 26 26 27 Table of Contents The Hidden/Shown icons The Group icons Resources and activities Adding resources and activities The administration menu The Moodle architecture The Moodle application directory The Moodle data directory The Moodle database Summary Chapter 2: Installing Moodle Installation step 1 – Requirements Hardware Disk space Bandwidth and data transfer limits Memory Ensuring minimum prerequisites Installation step 2 – Subdomain or subdirectory? Installation step 3 – Getting and unpacking Moodle Choosing a Moodle version The quick way – Upload and unzip Uploading and decompressing the ZIP file on the server Installation step 4 – Creating an empty database Installation step 5 – Creating the (moodledata) data directory Creating the database Installation step 6 – Installing Moodle Web-based installer Installation step 7 – Final configuration MoodleCloud basics Getting started with MoodleCloud MoodleCloud options Summary Chapter 3: Configuring Your Site Being mindful of user experience On-premise versus MoodleCloud Preparing to experiment Creating test accounts Installing several browsers Exploring the site administration menu Configuring authentication methods Manual accounts and no login methods Manually creating a new user Suspending a user's account Enabling email-based self-registration [ ii ] 28 28 28 28 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 38 39 39 40 40 40 41 42 42 43 44 44 45 45 47 48 49 51 51 52 55 56 58 59 59 59 60 Table of Contents Authenticating against an external source Connecting to an external database or server What happens when users are deleted from the external database? What happens when usernames are changed in the external database? Granting access to courses with enrollment choices Name Instances/enrollments Enable Up/down Settings Manual enrollments Manually enrolling a student in a course Guest access Enabling Guest access for a course Self enrolment Cohort sync Creating a cohort Adding users to a cohort Adding a user from the cohort page Adding a student using the bulk action method Enrolling a cohort in a course Category enrollments The flat file The file Student ID number required Course ID required Role Summary of flat files IMS Enterprise file LDAP External database External database connection Local field mappings Remote enrolment sync and creation of new courses PayPal Mnet remote enrollments (formerly Moodle networking) Language About language files Installing and enabling additional languages Installing additional languages Configuring the language Sitewide locale Excel encoding Offering courses in multiple languages Security settings The IP blocker – Limiting access to specific locations Site policies Protect usernames Forcing users to log in Forcing users to log in for profiles Open to Google Maximum uploaded file size [ iii ] 62 62 63 64 65 66 66 68 68 68 68 68 70 71 72 73 73 73 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 79 80 81 81 82 82 83 83 85 85 85 86 88 90 90 91 92 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 96 96 97 Table of Contents Changing the limit on uploaded file size in PHP Changing the limit on uploaded file size in Apache Allowing embed and object tags HTTP security Using HTTPS for logins Running Moodle entirely from HTTPS Filters Activity names and glossary auto-linking filters Math filters Email protection filter Multimedia plugins Multi-language content Word censorship HTML tidy Configuring the front page How to use this section Front page settings page Full site name Front page items Using a topic section on the front page Show news items Backup Setting up the cron job Summary Chapter 4: Creating Categories and Courses Planning based on your institution's mission and vision Using course categories and the user experience Displaying courses and categories on your front page Displaying an uncategorized list of courses on your front page Choosing the best option for your front page Creating course categories Rearranging course categories Creating courses Creating a new and blank course Enrolling teachers and students Assigning teachers How to set enrollment methods Handling course requests Enabling course requests Getting notified about course requests How to request a new course (teachers and students) Summary Chapter 5: Resources, Activities, and Conditional Access Mapping your approach Identifying course goals and learning objectives Settings that are common to all resources and activities Adding a resource or activity [ iv ] 98 99 99 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 104 104 105 105 105 106 106 107 108 108 109 109 110 111 112 113 113 116 117 118 120 122 122 134 134 135 138 138 138 140 141 142 143 143 144 145 Table of Contents Entering the name and description Showing and hiding a resource or an activity Setting the availability of a resource or an activity Using the visibility setting to show or hide a resource Using the ID number to include a resource in the grade book Restricting access Summary of the process to use completion conditions Creating the activities and resources that need to be completed Creating the activity completion settings Creating the activities or resources that will be restricted Setting the competency conditions Allowing students to see the activity or resource before they can access it Rearrange/move items on the course home page Summary Chapter 6: Adding Resources Tying resources to course outcomes Adding different kinds of resources Adding URLs Display options – Embed, Open, and In pop-up Embed Open In pop-up Adding pages Adding a page to your course Adding images Inserting an image file Inserting a hot-linked picture into a Moodle page Pasting text Stripping out the formatting – Pasting plain text Pasting text from Microsoft Word Composing in an HTML editor and uploading to Moodle Learn more about HTML Adding files for your students to download When a student selects a file from the course File repositories Types of repositories Using file-sharing services to collaborate Using repositories to overcome Moodle's limit on file sizes Enabling the filesystem repository Creating the directory for the filesystem repository Uploading files to the filesystem repository Creating the filesystem repository in your course Adding media – Video and audio Adding video or audio to a page Organizing your course Name your topics [v] 145 147 147 148 148 149 150 150 151 153 153 154 155 157 158 158 159 160 160 161 161 163 165 165 167 167 169 170 171 171 172 173 173 173 174 174 175 175 176 177 178 179 184 184 188 189 Table of Contents Rearrange/move items on the course home page Giving directions and organization with labels Summary Chapter 7: Adding Assignments, Lessons, Feedback, and Choices Instructional strategy Learning objectives Competency learning definitions Definitions Selecting assignments Understanding assignments What you can do with an assignment Types of work students can submit Submitting a digital file Requiring students to submit online text Submitting work done in the real world Submitting an assignment from the student's perspective Grading an assignment Receiving a grade for an assignment Allowing a student to resubmit an assignment Adding an assignment Availability Submission types Feedback types Submission settings Group submission settings Notifications Printer-friendly directions Indicating that assignments are mandatory Lesson Definition of a lesson Example of a simple lesson with remedial page jump Types of lesson pages Content pages Cluster with questions End of branch Planning, creating pages, and adding content Configuring lesson settings General settings Appearance File popup Display ongoing score Display left menu and minimum grade to display menu Maximum number of answers Use default feedback Link to next activity Prerequisite lesson The flow control [ vi ] 190 191 192 193 194 194 196 196 197 198 198 198 199 200 201 202 203 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 214 214 215 215 216 216 217 220 220 222 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 227 227 227 228 Table of Contents Allow student review Provide option to try a question again Maximum number of attempts Number of pages to show Grade The Practice lesson Custom scoring Handling of retakes Minimum number of questions Adding the first lesson page Importing questions Adding a content page Adding a cluster Adding a question page Creating a question page Page Title Page Contents Answers Responses Jumps This Page Next or Previous Page Specific Pages Unseen question within a cluster Random question within a content page Creating pages and assigning jumps The flow of pages Editing the lesson Collapsed and expanded Rearranging pages Editing pages Adding pages Feedback Feedback isn't just for students Creating a feedback activity Question types Adding a page break Avoiding bots with captcha Inserting information Adding a label Creating a textbox for a longer text answer Displaying multiple-choice questions Creating multiple-choice questions The numeric answer The short-text answer Viewing feedback Seeing individual responses Analyzing responses with the Analysis tab Choice The student's point of view The teacher's point of view [ vii ] 228 228 228 228 229 229 229 229 230 230 230 231 232 232 232 233 234 234 234 234 234 234 234 235 235 236 236 237 237 238 238 238 238 238 239 241 242 242 242 242 242 243 244 245 245 246 246 247 248 248 249 Table of Contents Limit Display Mode Publish results Privacy of results Allowing students to change their minds Summary Chapter 8: Evaluating Students with Quizzes Developing graded assignments using quizzes Question banks Configuring quiz settings General Timing Grade Layout The question behavior Adaptive mode Interactive with multiple tries Immediate feedback Deferred feedback Each attempt builds on the last Review options Appearance Extra restrictions on attempts Techniques for greater security The overall feedback Common module settings Adding questions to a quiz Adding questions to the Question bank Moving questions between categories Managing the proliferation of questions and categories Creating and editing question categories Creating a question Question types Adding feedback to a question Types of feedback for a question Feedback for individual responses Feedback for a numeric question Adding the existing questions from the question bank Adding random questions to a quiz Maximum grade Grade for each question Changing the order of questions Preventing glossary auto-linking in quiz questions Preventing an open book quiz Mastery learning Competency Frameworks Certificates Badges Summary [ viii ] 249 249 249 250 250 250 252 252 253 254 254 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 258 259 259 260 261 261 262 263 264 264 266 266 266 267 271 273 274 275 278 279 281 282 282 283 284 284 284 285 285 285 286 Table of Contents Chapter 9: Getting Social with Chats and Forums A forum-based instructional strategy Learning from one another The Chat module The chat settings page The name of this chat room Description The next chat time and repeat/publish sessions Saving past sessions – Past sessions and everyone can view past sessions Preventing students from seeing one another's chats Creating and running forums Forum-based content delivery Forum-based assignments Forum-based peer review Forum-based review and link to assessments General purpose forum Using the news forum to send notifications Multiple forums Forum settings General settings The forum name The forum description The forum type The maximum attachment size The maximum number of attachments The display word count The subscription mode Read tracking Post threshold to block settings Ratings Summary Chapter 10: Collaborating with Wikis and Glossaries Using collaboration as an instructional strategy Glossary Enabling glossaries and auto-linking Enabling glossaries for your site Enabling auto-linking Enabling auto-linking for the site Enabling auto-linking for the course Enabling auto-linking for the activity or resource Adding and configuring a glossary The global glossary versus local glossary The main glossary versus secondary glossary Entries approved by default Always allow editing and Duplicate entries allowed Allowing comments Automatically linking glossary entries [ ix ] 287 287 288 288 291 292 292 293 293 294 294 295 295 295 296 296 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 299 299 299 299 300 300 300 302 303 303 304 305 305 306 306 306 307 307 308 308 309 309 310 310 Table of Contents Appearance settings Enabling ratings Adding glossary entries Importing and exporting entries Wiki Using a wiki for student contributions and explanations of a topic Using a wiki to create a list of judging criteria for evaluating a competition Planning collaborative projects – Using the wiki type and groups mode to determine who can edit a wiki Event planning Business plan for a start-up Using the wiki type and groups mode to determine who can edit a wiki The first-page name The Default format Summary Chapter 11: Running a Workshop Why use a workshop? When are group project-based workshops best? Workshop strategies Peer assessment of submissions The timing of submissions and assessments The four questions The four phases The setup phase – The edit settings page Name and description Grading settings The grading strategy The Submission settings Assessment settings Feedback settings Example submissions settings Availability settings The edit assessment form page Adding an example to the workshop The submission phase – Students submit their work Allocating submissions The assessment phase The grading evaluation phase The closed phase Summary Chapter 12: Groups and Cohorts Groups versus cohorts Cohorts 310 311 314 316 316 317 317 318 318 318 319 319 320 321 322 322 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 326 326 327 329 330 331 332 332 333 335 338 340 340 340 340 341 342 342 343 343 343 Creating a cohort Adding students to a cohort [x] Table of Contents Manually adding and removing students to a cohort Adding students to a cohort in bulk – Upload Cohort sync Enabling the cohort sync enrollment method Adding the cohort sync enrollment method to a course Unenroll a cohort from a course Differences between cohort sync and enrolling a cohort Managing students with groups Course versus activity The three group modes Creating a group Manually creating and populating a group Automatically creating and populating a group Importing groups Summary Chapter 13: Extending Your Course by Adding Blocks Defining a block Uses of blocks Examples of blocks in action Configuring where a block appears Standard blocks The Activities block The Blog menu block The Blog tags block The CALENDAR block The comments block The Course completion block Course/site summary The Courses block The FEEDBACK block The HTML block The Latest News block The Logged in user block The Messages block The My latest badges block The My private files block The Online users block The quiz results block The Random glossary entry block The recent activity block The Remote RSS feeds block The Search Forums block Section links The Upcoming Events block Summary [ xi ] 343 344 348 349 349 350 350 351 352 352 353 353 355 356 357 358 358 359 359 360 364 364 366 366 367 368 369 369 369 369 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 373 374 375 375 376 376 376 377 Table of Contents Chapter 14: Features for Teachers Logs and reports Viewing course logs Viewing live logs Viewing activity reports The participation report Using activity tracking Viewing grades Categorizing grades Viewing grade categories Creating grade categories To create a grade category To assign an item to a grade category Using extra credit Weighting a category Compensating for a difficult category Summary Other Books You May Enjoy 378 378 379 381 381 383 384 385 387 387 388 388 388 389 390 391 393 394 Index 397 [ xii ] Preface This book will guide you in setting up a course and also use Moodle’s unique attributes and platform. It will take you on a journey from conception to actualization. After working through this book, you will be able to design, launch, and administer courses in Moodle using effective instructional design that is both attractive and engaging. You will be able to configure your courses so that they incorporate success strategies for students, flexible and high-quality materials, and learning objectives-focused assessment strategies. Who this book is for This book is for educators, e-learning professionals, and teachers who want to get the best out of Moodle. Experienced Moodle users will find powerful insights into developing successful educational courses. What this book covers This book is intended to be a useful companion as you create your courses in Moodle. It provides step-by-step instructions, and it also gives illustrative examples. At the same time, the book should instill confidence so that you feel free to experiment and create resources and activities that include your own special views and personality. With Moodlecloud and on-premise installations, you have the chance to create sandbox courses where you can play, experiment, build, and create your own unique learning world. Chapter 1, A Guided Tour of Moodle, is a guided tour of Moodle and what makes it unique. This chapter is an overview and should give you a good idea of what is possible. We hope you feel inspired to experiment and create after you read this chapter. In this chapter, you will begin building a plan to create your learning site, and how to do it in a way that incorporates Moodle's unique philosophy of learning, which rests on a foundation of interaction and the idea that people learn from each other. You will learn about the way Moodle is structured and its basic architecture. We will review how to get started and describe how you can begin to explore ways to make the "Moodle Experience" uniquely engaging for both students and instructors. Preface Chapter 2, Installing Moodle, teaches how to install Moodle on a server (on-premise) and also to use cloud-based Moodle (MoodleCloud). If you are a small institution or an individual teacher who would like to create a few courses to experiment with the form, or even to set up your own courses or tutoring services, in this chapter, you will find step-bystep instructions for installing Moodle. You will also learn how to access and use Moodle through the cloud so that you do not have to install Moodle on-premise. In learning about MoodleCloud, you'll find out how Moodle makes it easy for individuals to experiment in a friendly, free environment. Chapter 3, Configuring Your Site, focuses on getting your site ready for use, whether you are using on-premise or a Moodle's cloud-based solution. We will cover the basics of Moodle navigation, and we will introduce the administrative functions for site administrators as well as instructors. Chapter 4, Creating Categories and Courses, takes a close look at content administration in Moodle. This stage is important, because it involves planning and integrating your institution's mission and vision with the way that you structure and administer your courses. We will discuss how to effectively plan your course and how to align the course with your institution's vision and mission. We'll learn how to set up the framework for creating courses and also learn how to enroll users, including teachers, students, and guests. Chapter 5, Resources, Activities, and Conditional Access, says that as you begin to build your courses, it's important to take a look at your curriculum as a whole and then standardize in order to have consistent courses. We will discuss the way to develop your course frameworks and provide an overview of the kinds of resources and activities that are available in Moodle. You will learn how to design your course so that it achieves learning goals, with learning objectives at the center. You will also learn the mechanics of customizing the courses and their functionality. Chapter 6, Adding Resources, covers the kind of resources you can utilize in Moodle, and it describes ways to customize them and organize the course so that your resources are aligned with your course goals. You will learn how to add different kinds of resources, which include text files, embedded media files, URLs, and links to different types of libraries and open source repositories.  Preface Chapter 7, Adding Assignments, Lessons, Feedback, and Choices, outlines developing the instructional strategy you will use for your courses. In addition, you'll find the best way to build courses around your learning objectives so that you can clearly map your content and activities to them. Also, you'll learn about different ways to motivate your students and keep them engaged. We review writing learning objectives and developing assessments with Bloom's taxonomy in mind. We will also look at competency learning, including micro-competencies. You will learn how to incorporate certificates and badges in Moodle so that they are automatically generated when mastery has been demonstrated. Chapter 8, Evaluating Students with Quizzes, deals with assessment and assuring that learning objectives have been mastered. We will review how to set up quizzes, and we will include engagement strategies that involve recognizing student achievement. You will learn how to build different types of quizzes and tie them to mastery / competencies. Chapter 9, Getting Social with Chats and Forums, informs that collaboration and interaction are important in Moodle, and in many learning settings, they constitute the backbone of the entire educational experience. We will learn how to set up effective social platforms in Moodle that encourage learning objective-focused engagement. We focus on an interactionbased instructional strategy that emphasizes learning from each other, and uses forums and chat rooms. Chapter 10, Collaborating with Wikis and Glossaries, takes you through learning activities involving collaboration that are very important because they give learners an opportunity to employ numerous skills and also learn from each other. In this chapter, we will look at using collaboration as an instructional strategy, and we will discuss when and where to best employ it. We will go into detail and provide examples. For example, we will look at a wiki that we call the Shark Tank Wiki, because it deals with evaluating pitches for start-up funding (as in the popular television show, Shark Tank). Another good example of using Moodle for collaboration is in planning an event such as a fund-raiser. Chapter 11, Running a Workshop, demonstrates that using Moodle for an interactive workshop with group projects is a good strategy, because Moodle has unique attributes that make student interaction and content sharing very easy and effective. In this chapter, we discuss why and when to use a workshop and how to select a topic for a project that is ideal for a group workshop. Then, we review the four phases of a workshop and discuss the best strategies.  Preface Chapter 12, Groups and Cohorts, says that students learn from each other in the course as a whole and also within groups and subgroups. Many groups are formed for specific purposes, such as peer review or to develop a wiki or glossary entry. In this chapter, you learn how to set up and manage groups and cohorts in Moodle. Chapter 13, Extending Your Course by Adding Blocks, informs that developing content in the form of a block can be very effective for managing and delivering materials. In this chapter, we will discuss the use and management of blocks. We will cover examples of blocks and discuss how to configure a block and control where it appears. We will learn about standard as well as custom blocks. Chapter 14, Features for Teachers, says that Moodle has several different types of tools that make the teacher's life easier, which include customizable logs and reports. We learn how to manage them in this chapter. To get the most out of this book These are the things you'll need to keep in mind in order to get the most of this book: 1. You need to be able to use basic HTML 2. You'll need a good text editor, such as Google Docs or Microsoft Word 3. You'll need to be able to use photo editing programs, either Cloud-based (GIMP, for example), or installed on-premise (MS-Paint, for example) 4. You'll need to be able to use spreadsheet programs (Excel or Google Sheets) for importing and exporting student records and questions to test banks in quiz Conventions used There are a number of text conventions used throughout this book. CodeInText: Indicates code words in text, database table names, folder names, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, dummy URLs, user input, and Twitter handles. Here is an example: "Note the full course name in the
and tags. Many search engines give a lot of weight to the title tag. If your Moodle system is open to search engines, choose your course title with this in mind."  Preface A block of code is set as follows: Course: Non-Surgical Anti-Aging ServicesWhen we wish to draw your attention to a particular part of a code block, the relevant lines or items are set in bold: Course: Non-Surgical Anti-Aging ServicesAny command-line input or output is written as follows: $ git clone -b MOODLE_Version3_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git Bold: Indicates a new term, an important word, or words that you see onscreen. For example, words in menus or dialog boxes appear in the text like this. Here is an example: "To use conditional activities, your system administrator must enable the feature Enable conditional access under Site administration | Advanced Features." Warnings or important notes appear like this. Tips and tricks appear like this.  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If you are interested in becoming an author: If there is a topic that you have expertise in and you are interested in either writing or contributing to a book, please visit authors.packtpub.com. Reviews Please leave a review. Once you have read and used this book, why not leave a review on the site that you purchased it from? Potential readers can then see and use your unbiased opinion to make purchase decisions, we at Packt can understand what you think about our products, and our authors can see your feedback on their book. Thank you! For more information about Packt, please visit packtpub.com.  1 A Guided Tour of Moodle Moodle is a free, open source learning management system that enables you to create powerful, flexible, and engaging online learning experiences. I use the phrase online learning experiences instead of online courses deliberately. The phrase online course often connotes a sequential series of web pages, some images, maybe a few animations, and a quiz put online. There might be some email or bulletin board communication among the teacher and students. However, online learning can be much more engaging than that. Moodle's name gives you an insight into its approach to e-learning. The official Moodle documentation on http://docs.moodle.org states the following: "The word Moodle was originally an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, which is mostly useful to programmers and education theorists. It's also a verb that describes the process of lazily meandering through something, doing things as it occurs to you to do them, an enjoyable tinkering that often leads to insight and creativity. As such, it applies both to the way Moodle was developed and to the way a student or teacher might approach studying or teaching an online course. Anyone who uses Moodle is a Moodler." The phrase online learning experience connotes a more active, engaging role for students and teachers. It connotes, among other things, web pages that can be explored in any order, courses with live chats among students and teachers, forums where users can rate messages on their relevance or insight, online workshops that enable students to evaluate one another's work, impromptu polls that let the teacher evaluate what students think of a course's progress, and directories set aside for teachers to upload and share their files. All these features create an active learning environment, full of different kinds of student-tostudent and student-to-teacher interactions. This is the kind of user experience that Moodle excels at and the kind that this book will help you create. A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Moodle's philosophy of learning For those of you who are interested, the underlying learning philosophy for Moodle is that of "connectivism." Basically, it means that people learn from one another, and Moodle's framework is structured to maximize interactivity with other students and the content itself. When Moodle first debuted, the philosophy usually involved forums, with some potential for real-time chat. However, with the ability to include webinars using BigBlueButton and other add-ins, the possibilities of synchronous (real-time) and asynchronous interactivity have expanded. One thing to keep in mind as you develop a course that incorporates connectivistm as learning philosophy is that you'll be working with the affective (the emotional) as well as the cognitive domain. This means that you will be engaging the emotions (which is good for motivation). Connectivism also means that you can also encourage the sharing of experiences and allow people to build on prior knowledge and experience. In fact, building courses that allow students to scaffold their knowledge with experiential and prior learning can give rise to a very solid approach. Your students will be able to do more with the knowledge, particularly if the course has to do with applied knowledge and skills. In this chapter, we will learn the following: How to launch a plan to create your learning site How Moodle's philosophy of connectivism creates conditions for learning The fundamental architecture of Moodle The way people learn with Moodle What makes Moodle unique A plan to create your learning site Whether you are the site creator or a course creator, you can use this book to develop a plan to build your courses and curriculum. As you work your way through each chapter, the book provides guidance on making decisions that meet your goals for your learning site. This helps you create the kind of learning experience that you want for your teachers (if you're the site creator) or students (if you're the teacher). You can also use this book as a traditional reference manual, but its main advantages are its step-by-step, project-oriented approach and the guidance it gives you about creating an interactive learning experience.  A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Moodle is designed to be intuitive to use, and its online help is well written. It does a good job of telling you how to use each of its features. What Moodle's help files don't tell you is when and why to use each feature and what effect it will have on the student experience, and that is what this book supplies. One of the most exciting new developments with Moodle is that Moodle now has a cloudbased virtual learning environment (VLE), which is called MoodleCloud. It is free for you to use if you have fewer than 50 registered users (students, instructors, and so on). You can still customize the course, and you can build in a great deal of flexibility and functionality. It does not have the same number of options as an on-premise local installation, but it saves a great deal of time and money. MoodleCloud allows you to experiment with designs and also to start small, with the intention of growing. It also makes it easy for individuals and organizations to develop new kinds of training, collaboration, and education, and then scale up when needed. Step-by-step instructions to use Moodle When you create a Moodle learning site, you usually follow a defined series of steps. This book is arranged to support that process. Each chapter shows you how to get the most from each step. Each step is listed with a brief description of the chapter that supports the step. As you work your way through each chapter, your learning site will grow in scope and sophistication. By the time you finish this book, you should have a complete, interactive learning site. As you learn more about what Moodle can do and see your courses taking shape, you may want to change some of the things that you did in the previous chapters. Moodle offers you this flexibility. Also, this book helps you determine how those changes will cascade throughout your site. Step 1 – Learning about the Moodle experience Every learning management system (LMS) has a paradigm, or approach, that shapes the user experience and encourages a certain kind of usage. An LMS might encourage very sequential learning by offering features that enforce a given order on each course. It might discourage student-to-student interaction by offering few features that support it, while encouraging solo learning by offering many opportunities for the student to interact with the course material.  A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 In this chapter, you will learn what Moodle can do and what kind of user experience your students and teachers will have, using Moodle. You will also learn about the Moodle philosophy and how it shapes the user experience. With this information, you'll be ready to decide how to make the best use of Moodle's many features and plan your online learning site. Step 2 – Installing Moodle Chapter 2, Installing Moodle, guides you through installing Moodle on your web server. It will help you estimate the amount of disk space, bandwidth, and memory that you will need for Moodle. This can help you decide the right hosting service for your needs. Step 3 – Configuring your site Most of the decisions you make while installing and configuring Moodle will affect the user experience. Not just students and teachers, but also course creators and site administrators are affected by these decisions. While Moodle's online help does a good job of telling you how to install and configure the software, it doesn't tell you how the settings that you choose affect the user experience. Chapter 3, Configuring Your Site, covers the implications of these decisions and helps you configure the site so that it behaves in the way you envision. Step 4 – Creating the framework for your learning site In Moodle, every course belongs to a category. Chapter 4, Creating Categories and Courses, takes you through creating course categories and then creating courses. Just as you chose site-wide settings during installation and configuration, you choose course-wide settings while creating each course. This chapter tells you the implications of the various course settings so that you can create the experience that you want for each course. It also shows you how to add teachers and students to the courses. [ 10 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Step 5 – Making decisions about common settings In Moodle, course material is either a resource or an activity. A resource is an item that the student views, listens to, reads, or downloads. An activity is an item that the student interacts with or that enables the student to interact with the teacher or other students. In Chapter 5, Resources, Activities, and Conditional Access, you will learn about the settings that are common to all resources and activities and how to add resources and activities to a course. Step 6 – Adding basic course material In most online courses, the core material consists of web pages that the students view. These pages can contain text, graphics, movies, sound files, games, exercises—anything that can appear on the World Wide Web (WWW) can appear on a Moodle web page. Chapter 6, Adding Resources, covers adding this kind of material, plus links to other websites, media files, labels, and directories of files. This chapter also helps you determine when to use each of these types of material. Step 7 – Making your courses interactive In this context, interactive means an interaction between the student and the teacher, or the student and an active web page. Student-to-student interaction is covered in a later chapter. This chapter covers activities that involve interaction between the student and an active web page, or between the student and the teacher. Interactive course material includes lessons that guide students through a defined path, based upon their answers to review question and the assignments that are uploaded by the student and then graded by the teacher. Chapter 7, Adding Assignments, Lessons, Feedback, and Choices, tells you how to create these interactions and how each of them affects the student and teacher experience. Step 8 – Evaluating your students In Chapter 8, Evaluating Students with Quizzes, you'll learn how to evaluate the students' knowledge with a quiz. The chapter thoroughly covers creating quiz questions, sharing quiz questions with other courses, adding feedback to questions and quizzes, and more. [ 11 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Step 9 – Making your course social Social course material enables student-to-student interaction. Moodle enables you to add chats and forums to your courses. These types of interactions will be familiar to many students. Chapter 9, Getting Social with Chats and Forums, shows you how to create and manage these social activities. Step 10 – Adding collaborative activities Moodle enables students to work together to create new material. For example, you can create glossaries that are site-wide and those that are specific to a single course. Students can add to the glossaries. You can also allow students to contribute to and edit a wiki in class. Moodle also offers a powerful workshop tool, which enables the students to view and evaluate one another's work. Each of these interactions makes the course more interesting but also more complicated for the teacher to manage. The result is a course that encourages the students to contribute, share, and engage. Chapter 10, Collaborating with Wikis and Glossaries, and Chapter 11, Running a Workshop, help you rise to the challenge of managing your students' collaborative work. Step 11 – Managing and extending your courses Chapter 12, Groups and Cohorts, shows you how to use groups to separate the students in a course. You will also learn how to use cohorts, or site-wide groups, to mass enroll students into courses. Every block adds functionality to your site or your course. Chapter 13, Extending Your Course by Adding Blocks, describes many of Moodle's blocks, helps you decide which ones will meet your goals, and tells you how to implement them. You can use blocks to display calendars, enable commenting, enable tagging, show navigation features, and much more. [ 12 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Step 12 – Taking the pulse of your course Moodle offers several tools to help teachers administer and deliver courses. It keeps detailed access logs that enable the teachers to see exactly what content the students access, and when. It also enables the teachers to establish custom grading scales, which are available site-wide or for a single course. Student grades can be accessed online and can also be downloaded in a variety of formats (including spreadsheet). Finally, teachers can collaborate in special forums (bulletin boards) reserved just for them. This is a part of Chapter 14, Features for Teachers. Applying the Moodle philosophy Moodle is designed to support a style of learning called social constructionism. This style of learning is interactive. The social constructionist philosophy believes that people learn best when they interact with the learning material, construct new material for others, and interact with other students about the material. The difference between a traditional philosophy and the social constructionist philosophy is the difference between a lecture and a discussion. Adding static content Moodle does not require you to use the social constructionist method for your courses. However, it best supports this method. For example, Moodle enables you to add several kinds of static course material. This is the course material that a student reads but does not interact with, such as the following: Web pages Links to anything on the web (including material on your Moodle site) A folder of files A label that displays any text or image [ 13 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Interactive and social course material However, Moodle enables you to add even more kinds of interactive and social course material. This is the course material that a student interacts with, by answering questions, entering text, or uploading files, which includes the following: Assignment (uploading files to be reviewed by the teacher) Choice (a single question) Lesson (a conditional, branching activity) Quiz (an online test) Creating activities Moodle also offers activities in which the students interact with one another. These are used to create social course material, such as the following: Chat (live online chat between students) Forum (you can have none or several online bulletin boards for each course) Glossary (students and/or teachers can contribute terms to site-wide glossaries) Wiki (this is a familiar tool for collaboration with most younger students and many older students) Workshop (this supports peer review and feedback of the assignments that the students upload) In addition, some of Moodle's add-on modules add even more types of interaction. For example, one add-on module enables the students and the teachers to schedule appointments with each other. [ 14 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The Moodle experience As Moodle encourages interaction and exploration, your students' learning experience will often be non-linear. Moodle can enforce a specific order upon a course, using something called conditional activities. Conditional activities can be arranged in a sequence. Your course can contain a mix of conditional and non-linear activities. In this section, I'll take you on a tour of a Moodle learning site. You will see a student's experience from the time the student arrives at the site, enters a course, and works through some material in the course. You will also see some student-to-student interaction and some functions used by the teacher to manage the course. Along the way, I'll point out many of the features that you will learn to implement in this book and how the demo site is using those features. The Moodle front page The front page of your site is the first thing that most users will see. This section takes you on a tour of the front page of a demonstration site. Probably, the best Moodle demo sites are http://demo.moodle.net/ and http://school.demo.moodle.net/. Many of the screenshots in this book are from http://school.demo.moodle.net. The contents of that site are graciously offered by Moodle Pty Ltd, under the Creative Commons—Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Arriving at the site When a visitor arrives at the demonstration learning site, the visitor sees the front page. You can require the visitor to register and log in before seeing any part of your site. [ 15 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Alternatively, you can allow the anonymous visitor to see a lot of information about the site on the front page, which is what I have done in the following screenshot: One of the first things that a visitor will note is that you can search for courses to download and use. You can enter keywords, and you'll be able to select from different options. For example, I entered the word literature, and I was able to find a number of modules that I can use in my courses. All I have to do is provide proper attribution. Several options are available, as seen in the following screenshot: [ 16 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Using moodlecloud.com Moodle has created a cloud-based Moodle, which allows you to set up courses, develop a sandbox, and launch the courses. It is located at http://www.moodlecloud.com, and, depending on the number of users, your cost can range from absolutely free to higher costs, seen as follows, and also as described on the information page at https://moodlecloud. com/app/en/: Free: It allows you to develop as many courses as you'd like and develop as many as 50 users. Your idle courses are not archived, so you need to log in often. Your account will be deleted if you do not access it regularly. Starter: It allows you to have the same number of users as the Free option, but you also have access to more applications such as document converters and certificate generators. However, you're limited with respect to themes and other utilities. It costs 80 AUD per year. Moodle for School: It has different levels and pricing, depending on the number of users and storage space. With packages that can scale up to 500 users, it's ideal for a small school, but does not work for a large school. [ 17 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The main menu Logging into MoodleCloud, note the My new Moodle site in the upper-left corner in the following screenshot. It includes Dashboard, Site pages, and My courses. It tells the user about the courses you have created and also those made available by Moodle. It includes Introduction to Moodle, which is an introductory guided tour that all new users should explore. In Moodle, the icons tell the user what kind of resource will be accessed by a link. In this case, the icon tells the user that the first resource is a PDF (Adobe Acrobat) document and the second is a web page. Course material that a student observes or reads, such as web or text pages, hyperlinks, and multimedia files, is called resources. In Chapter 5, Resources, Activities, and Conditional Access, you will learn how to add resources to a course. Blocks In the side bars of the page, you will find Blocks. For example, the Main menu, Calendar, and Tags blocks. You can choose to add a block to the front page, to all the pages in the site, or to an individual course. [ 18 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Other blocks display a summary of the current course, a list of courses available on the site, the latest news, who is online, and other information. At the bottom-right side of the front page, you see the Login block. Chapter 13, Extending Your Course by Adding Blocks, tells you how to use these blocks. Your site's front page is a course!—you can add these blocks to the front page of your site because the front page is essentially a course. Anything that you can add to a course, such as resources and blocks, can be added to the front page. The site description On the right-hand side of the front page, you see a Site Description. This is optional. If this were a course, you could choose to display the Course Description. The Site Description or Course Description can contain anything that you can put on a web page. It is essentially a block of HTML code that is displayed on the front page. Available courses You can choose to display the available courses on the front page of your site. You can also customize the appearance of your front page. You can do that by clicking on Dashboard and then customizing the descriptions of the courses, and you can also indicate whether you want to make the default page your home page. If you do not, you can search for a different page and select it. [ 19 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The following screenshot shows what your dashboard looks like after you've clicked on it and how to customize the descriptions: When a course is displayed in a list, clicking on the information icon next to a course displays its Course Description in a pop-up window. Clicking on a course's name takes you into the course. If the course allows anonymous access, you are taken directly into the course. If the course allows guest access or requires registration, you are taken to the login screen. [ 20 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Inside a course Now, let's take a look inside a course: We will be examining the typical elements that you'll find in a course, starting with the navigation used to help you move through it. Then we'll look at blocks, sections, and the places where we can put content. The navigation bar In the preceding screenshot, the user has logged in as the Administrator and entered the Trends in Tourism course. Note the breadcrumbs trail (the Navbar) in the top-left corner of the screen, which tells us the name of the site and the short name of the course. At the upper-right side of the screen, we see a confirmation that the user has logged in. That is not a part of the Navbar, but it usually appears next to it. There is also a box that allows you to turn on editing. [ 21 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Blocks Like the front page, this course uses various blocks. The most prominent one is the Navigation block on the left. Let's talk more about navigation. The navigation block The Navigation block shows you where you are and where you can go in the site. In the demonstration, you can see direct links to the topics in the course. This enables the student to jump to a topic that is much further down on the page, without scrolling. At the bottom of the Navigation block is a link to the My courses page. If you click on each course link, you will see an outline of the main units in that course. It helps the student navigate quickly and easily. We will cover how to create assignments in Chapter 7, Adding Assignments, Lessons, Feedback, and Choices. Sections Moodle enables you to organize a course by Week, in which case each section is labeled with a date instead of a number. Alternatively, you can choose to make your course a single, large discussion forum. Most courses are organized by Topic, such as the one seen in the next screenshot: [ 22 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Note that the first topic is not numbered. Moodle allows you the first topic as the course introduction. Teachers can hide and show sections at will. This enables a teacher to open and close resources and activities as the course progresses. Topics are the lowest level of organization in Moodle. The hierarchy is Site | Course Category | Course Subcategory (optional) | Course | Section. Every item in your course belongs to a Topic, even if your course consists of only Topic 0. [ 23 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Joining a discussion Clicking on the link for any discussion takes the student into the forum. Clicking on a Discussion thread opens that thread in the forum. You can see, in the following screenshot, that the teacher started with the first post. Then, a student replied to the original post: As Moodle supports an interactive, collaborative style of learning, students can also be given the ability to rate forum posts and the material submitted by other students. You'll find out more about forums in Chapter 9, Getting Social with Chats and Forums. Completing a lesson Next, the student will enter a workshop called Attracting Passionate & Quirky Affinity Groups: Save the Sea Turtles, Stand-Up Paddleboarding, ZombieNights, and more. [ 24 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 In this lesson, the learner works through different kinds of course materials and assessments. The lesson starts with an article and then includes a multichoice activity to assess the student's mastery. Note that they must go through the content in the proper sequence: In this book, we will go through the creation of lessons as well as the individual components, which include Content and Activities. Note the online editor that the student uses to write the assignment. This gives the student basic What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) features. The same word processor appears when the course creators create web pages, when students write online assignment entries, and at other times when a user is editing and formatting text. Moodle can be configured to use several different kinds of editors. Depending upon your exact version and how your site administrator configures your site, yours might differ slightly from what is shown here. Editing mode We've been looking at Moodle from a student's perspective. Students usually don't edit course material. Let's see what happens when you turn on the editing mode to make changes. [ 25 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Normal mode versus editing mode When a Guest user or a registered student browses through your learning site, Moodle displays the pages normally. However, when someone with a course editing privilege enters a course, Moodle offers a button to switch into editing mode: Clicking on Turn editing on puts Moodle into editing mode: Let's walk through the icons that become available in editing mode. The Edit icon Clicking on the Edit icon enables you to edit whatever that icon follows. In this example, clicking on the Edit icon that follows the paragraph enables you to edit the section description. An example of a description is shown as follows: [ 26 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Clicking on the Edit icon takes you into the editing window for that quiz. In that window, you can create, add, and remove quiz questions, change the grading scheme, and apply other settings to the quiz. The Delete icon Clicking on the Delete icon deletes whatever item the icon follows. If you want to remove an item from a course but are not sure whether you'll want to use it later, don't delete the item. Instead, hide it from view. Hiding and showing are explained in the next paragraph. [ 27 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The Hidden/Shown icons I call these the Hidden/Shown icons, instead of Hide/Show, because the icons indicate the current state of an item, instead of indicating what will happen when you click on them. The Hidden icon indicates that an item is hidden from the students. Clicking on it shows the item to the students. The Show icon indicates that an item is shown to the students. Clicking on it hides the item from the students. If you want to remove an item from a course while keeping it for later use, or if you want to keep an item hidden from students while you're working on it, hide it instead of deleting it. The Group icons The Group icons indicate what group mode has been applied to an item. Groups are explained in Chapter 12, Groups and Cohorts. For now, you should know that you can control access to items based upon which group a student belongs to. Clicking on these icons enables you to change that setting. Resources and activities The course material that a student observes or reads, such as web or text pages, hyperlinks, and multimedia files, are called resources. Course materials that a student interacts with, or that enables interaction among students and teachers, are called activities. Now, let's look at how to add some resources and activities to your Moodle site or course. In editing mode, you can add resources and activities to a course. Moodle offers more activities than resources, such as chat, forum, quiz, wiki, and more. Adding resources and activities You add resources and activities using the drop-down menu that appears in editing mode, as seen in the following screenshot: [ 28 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 [ 29 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 Selecting an item brings you to the editing settings page for that type of item. For example, selecting URL displays the window seen in the following screenshot. Note that you can do much more than just specify a hyperlink. You can give this link a user-friendly name, a summary description, open it in a new window, and more. Every resource and activity that you add to Moodle has a description. This description appears when a student selects the item. Also, if the item appears in a list (for example, a list of all the resources in a course), the description will be displayed. When building courses, you will spend most of your time in the Edit settings pages for the items that you add. You will find their behavior and appearance to be very consistent. The presence of a description is an example of that consistency. Another example is the presence of the help icon next to the title of the window. Clicking on this icon displays an explanation of this type of item. Also, the edit settings pages are divided into sections. Some sections are present for almost every resource and activity that you add. These sections are covered once in this book, to avoid repetition. [ 30 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The administration menu The contents of the Administration menu change depending upon who is logged in. For example, the next screenshot shows the Administration menu when a student is in one of our courses: The following screenshot shows the teacher's view of the Administration menu: [ 31 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The choices on this menu apply to the course itself. If a teacher, administrator, or course creator selects an activity or resource in the course, the user is taken inside that activity/resource. Then, the Administration submenu for that item will appear. In the example seen in the following screenshot, the teacher has selected an assignment and is looking at the Administration submenu for that assignment: This short tour introduced you to the basics of the Moodle experience. The following chapters will take you through installing Moodle and creating courses. If you work through those chapters in order, you will discover many more features that are not mentioned in this tour. Also, because Moodle is open source, new features can be added at any time. Perhaps, you will be the one to contribute a new feature to the Moodle community. The Moodle architecture Moodle runs on any web server that supports the PHP programming language and a database. It works best, and there is more support, when running on the Apache web server with a MySQL database. These requirements—Apache, PHP, and MySQL—are common to almost all commercial web hosts, even the cheaper ones. [ 32 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The Moodle learning management system resides in three places on your web host: The application occupies one directory, with many subdirectories for the various modules Data files that the students and teachers upload—such as photos and assignments submitted by students—reside in the Moodle data directory Course material that you create with Moodle (web pages, quizzes, workshops, lessons, and so on), grades, user information, and user logs reside in the Moodle database The Moodle application directory The following screenshot shows you my Moodle application directory. Without even knowing much about Moodle, you can guess the function of several of the directories. For example, the admin directory holds the PHP code that creates the administrative pages, the lang directory holds translations of the Moodle interface, and the mod directory holds the various modules. The index.php file is the Moodle home page. If a student was browsing my Moodle site, the first page that the student would read is the http://moodle.williamrice.com/index.php file. As each of Moodle's core components and modules are in its own subdirectory, the software can be easily updated by replacing the old files with new ones. You should periodically check the https://www.moodle.org website for news about updates and bug fixes. The Moodle data directory Moodle stores the files uploaded by the users in a data directory. This directory should not be accessible to the general public over the web, that is, you should not be able to type in the URL for this directory and access it using a web browser. You can protect it either using a .htaccess file or by placing the directory outside of the web server's documents directory. [ 33 ] A Guided Tour of Moodle Chapter 1 The Moodle database While the Moodle data directory stores the files uploaded by students, the Moodle database stores most of the information in your Moodle site. The database stores objects that you create using Moodle. For example, Moodle enables you to create web pages for your courses. The actual HTML code for these web pages is stored in the database. Links that you add to a course, the settings, the content of forums and wikis, and quizzes created with Moodle, are all examples of data stored in the Moodle database. The three parts of Moodle—the application, data directory, and database—work together to create your learning site. Backup and disaster recovery are obvious applications of this knowledge. However, knowing how the three parts work together is also helpful when upgrading, troubleshooting, and moving your site between servers. Summary Moodle encourages exploration and interaction among students and teachers. As a course designer and teacher, you will have the maximum number of tools at your disposal if you work with this tendency, which will make your learning experiences as interactive as possible. Creating courses with forums, peer-assessed workshops, surveys, and interactive lessons is more work than creating a course from a series of static web pages. However, it is also more engaging and effective, and you will find it worth the effort to use Moodle's many interactive features. When teaching an online course in Moodle, remember that Moodle generally enables you to add, move, and modify course material on the fly. If it's permitted by your institution's policies, don't hesitate to change a course in response to student needs. Keep in mind that if you're using the cloud-based virtual learning environment version of Moodle, MoodleCloud, you will have built-in options and may not be able to modify the course in the way you could if you had a custom or local (on-premise) installation. Finally, learn the basics of Moodle's architecture, and at least read over the installation and configuration in Chapter 2, Installing Moodle. Don't be afraid of the technology. If you can master the difficult art of teaching, you can master using Moodle to its full potential. [ 34 ] 2 Installing Moodle Even if you don't install Moodle yourself, you should skim this chapter for information that will be helpful to you as a course manager and creator. This is because the choices made during Moodle's installation can affect how the system works for people who create, teach, and take courses on that system. Installing Moodle requires you to secure space on a web server, create subdomains, unpack Moodle, create the data director, create the Moodle database, and select front page settings. Each of these is covered in the following sections. In addition, at the end of this chapter, we will discuss MoodleCloud, which is a hosting service from the makers of Moodle, which has the advantage of being cloud-based and more of a virtual learning environment than simply a learning management system. While using a hosted solution is not for everyone, it is an ideal option for individuals, small organizations, and solution developers. Installation step 1 – Requirements Moodle is run from a web server if you prefer to use Moodle on-premise rather than cloudbased. You upload or place Moodle in your directory on the server. Usually, the server is someone's computer. If you're a teacher, or work in the corporate world, your institution might have its own web server. If you're an individual or have a small business, you will probably buy web-hosting services from another company. In either case, we are assuming that you have an account on a web server that offers Apache, PHP, and MySQL. If you must install your own Apache web server and MySQL software, the easiest way to do so is to use another open source tool—XAMPP from http://www.apachefriends.org. Apache Friends is a non-profit project to promote the Apache web server. XAMPP is an easy, all-in-one installer that installs Apache, MySQL, PHP, and Perl. It is available for Linux, Windows, Mac, and Solaris. If you would like to create a test environment for Moodle, installing XAMPP onto your computer will install the web server with the components required to support a Moodle installation. Installing Moodle Chapter 2 You can also download a package containing Moodle and the other software needed to make it run: Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Go to the official Moodle website (https://moodle.org/), and, under DOWNLOADS, look for installer packages. You can install Standard Moodle (requires a web server with PHP and a database), and you can add many plugins from the plugins directory. It's possible to download Moodle Mobile with the Moodle Mobile app, which you can also experience with Moodle Desktop. Moodle is open source under the GPL license, and you may download, use, and share it for free. Here's the site for downloads: http://moodle.org/downloads. Hardware It's a good idea to start with a smaller installation and as you gain confidence, you will be able to expand it. Disk space A fresh Moodle installation will occupy less than 200 MB of disk space, which is not much. However, it's better to budget for 5 GB because of plugins. The content that is added while the users create and take courses will probably grow larger than that. Base your decision on how much space to obtain upon the kinds of courses that you plan to deliver. If the courses contain mostly text and a few graphics, you'll need less space than if they contain music and video files. Also, consider the disk space occupied by files that the students will upload. Will the students upload small word processing files? Large graphics? Huge multimedia files? When determining how much disk space you will need, consider the size of the files that your courses will serve and that your students will submit. The size of files that can be uploaded is controlled by the site administrator using a setting under Security | Site policies | Maximum uploaded file size. It is also controlled by a setting on the web server that is hosting Moodle. The lower of these two settings—the Moodle setting and the server setting—determines the size of the files that can be uploaded through Moodle. Bandwidth and data transfer limits Moodle is a web-based product, so course content and assignments are added over the web. Whenever a reader or a user connects to a website, they're using bandwidth. When a user reads a page on your Moodle site, downloads a video, or uploads a paper, they use some of your bandwidth. The more courses, students, activities, and multimedia your Moodle site has, the more bandwidth you will use. [ 36 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 Most commercial hosting services have a limit of data transfer in their service. If your account uses more bandwidth or you transfer more data than what is allowed, some services will cut off your site's access. Others keep your site up, but automatically bill you for the additional bandwidth or data transfer. The second option is preferable in case of unexpected demand. When deciding upon a hosting service, find out how much bandwidth they offer and what they do if you exceed that limit. In the tip below, consider hosting your videos on YouTube or Vimeo to avoid having to use up server space and bandwidth, which can be expensive. Are you serving videos with your course? If your course includes many videos, or if you'll be serving videos to many users, that can use up a lot of the bandwidth that your hosting company provides. Instead of hosting those videos on your Moodle server, consider hosting them on a dedicated video hosting site like http://www.vimeo.com or http://www.youtube.com. Then, you can just embed them in your Moodle page. Vimeo, YouTube, or whoever hosts the video will take care of the bandwidth. Memory It is recommended that you use a 2 GHz dual core or more processor. Although you can potentially get started with 1 GB of memory, 8 GB or more is a good idea, especially on a production server. For the best possible performance, visit Moodle's page that contains the latest recommendations for hardware as well as software. Detailed recommendations can be found at https://docs.moodle.org/34/en/Performance_recommendations. Ensuring minimum prerequisites Check with your hosting service to ensure that you will be given the following minimum prerequisites: Enough disk space for the Moodle software, your course material, and the files that the students will upload. FTP access to your server. Enough bandwidth to serve your course files and for the students to upload their files. PHP version 7. [ 37 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 The ability to create at least one database or to have it created for you. The ability to create at least one database user or to have it created for you. Enough shared or dedicated memory to run Moodle's automated backup routines. You may not know how much that is until you've tried it. When you can confirm that you have those items, you are ready to proceed with the installation. Many hosting services also offer automated installation of Moodle. Search for hosting services using the terms fantastico and moodle, or one-click install and moodle. These are usually shared hosting services, so you will have the same performance limitations as if you installed Moodle yourself on a shared host. However, they simplify the installation and thus provide a fast and inexpensive way to get a Moodle site up and running. Automated installations are not always the latest version. Also, they often limit the ability to install additional plugins and to customize your site. Check with your hosting company about when they roll out new versions and the limits on customizing it. You should also research the services offered by the official Moodle partners. You can find out more about Moodle partners on http://www.moodle.com (note the .com and not .org address). Installation step 2 – Subdomain or subdirectory? A subdomain is a web address that exists under your web address and acts like an independent site. For example, my website is www.williamrice.com. This is a standard website, not a Moodle site. I could have a subdomain, http://www.moodle.williamrice.com, to hold a Moodle site. This subdomain would be like an independent site. However, it exists on the same server, under the same account, and they both count toward the disk space and the bandwidth that I use. In this example, Moodle is installed in the http://www.moodle.williamrice.com subdomain. [ 38 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 Using a subdomain offers you several advantages. Having a site to test updates and addons may be helpful if uninterrupted service is important to you. Later, you'll see how easy it is to copy a Moodle installation to a different location, change a few settings, and have it work. If you want to do this, ensure that the hosting service you choose allows subdomains. If you want to keep things simpler, you can install Moodle into a subdirectory of your website. In the next step, you will see how Moodle can automatically install itself into a subdirectory called /moodle. This is very convenient, and you'll find a lot of websites with Moodle running in the /moodle subdirectory. Decide if you want to install Moodle into a subdirectory or a subdomain. If you choose a subdomain, create it now. If you choose a subdirectory, you can create it later, while uploading the Moodle software. Installation step 3 – Getting and unpacking Moodle Get Moodle from the official website, http://www.moodle.org/. Go to the Moodle downloads page and select the version and format that you need. Choosing a Moodle version For a new installation, the latest stable branch is usually your best choice. The last build information tells you when it was last updated with a bug fix or a patch. This is usually irrelevant to you; the version number determines which features you get, not the build time. For a production server, do not use the standalone packages mentioned earlier. They are insecure, because they are meant for use by a Moodle developer for experimentation and development. To make the development of a site easier and faster, security settings that would slow down development have been turned off by default. Standalone packages are a good choice if you want to experiment or develop a Moodle site on your local (nonnetworked) computer. For a production site, instead of the standalone packages, use the latest stable branch. [ 39 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 The quick way – Upload and unzip Moodle is downloaded as a single, compressed file. This compressed file contains the many small files and directories that constitute Moodle. After downloading the compressed file, you can decompress (or unzip) the file. Unzipping it on your local PC will extract many files and directories that you must place on your server. If you're using a hosting service, they may have the ability to decompress the file on the server. If so, you can just upload the entire ZIP file, tell the server to decompress it, and all your Moodle files will be in place. This is much faster than decompressing the ZIP file on your computer and uploading the many files that it creates. Uploading and decompressing the ZIP file on the server 1. Go to http://www.moodle.org/ and download the Moodle package (ZIP or TAR file) to your local hard drive. 2. Upload the file to your hosting service. You may wish to pull the code from the Git repository, which is the best option for developers because it makes upgrading very easy. Here is code: $ git clone -b MOODLE_Version3_STABLE git://git.moodle.org/moodle.git 3. Secure the Moodle files. Ensure that your files are not writeable by the web server user. 4. If your hosting service gives you the option to create a new directory for the unzipped files (Create subdirectory in the preceding example), you can select not to do so. Moodle's compressed file will automatically create a subdirectory called moodle for the unzipped files. Installation step 4 – Creating an empty database Create a new, empty database for your installation. Refer to moodle.org for updated information, and as you do so, you will need to find and make a note of your database server hostname, username, and password for use during the final installation stage: [ 40 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 dbhost: This is the database server hostname. It is usually localhost if the database and web server are the same machine, or it can be the name of the database server. dbname: This is the database name. It is usually moodle. dbuser: This is the username for the database. Use what you assigned, which is usually moodleuser. Be sure not to use the root/superuser account. Create an account with the minimum permissions needed. dbpass: This is the password for the moodleuser. If your site is hosted, you should find a web-based administration page for databases as part of the control panel (or ask your administrator). For everyone else, or for detailed instructions, refer to the page for your chosen database server: PostgreSQL (recommended) MariaDB (recommended) MySQL MS SQL On your server, create a directory to hold the Moodle data. This can be a directory outside of the Moodle directory or a subdirectory. Installation step 5 – Creating the (moodledata) data directory While the Moodle data directory stores files uploaded by students and some larger files, the Moodle database stores most of the information in your Moodle site. By default, the installer uses the moodle database name and the moodleuser username. Using these default settings gives any hacker a head start on breaking into your site. When creating your database, change these to something less common. At least make the hackers guess the name of your database and the database username. [ 41 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 You should also choose a strong password for the Moodle database user. The following are some recommendations for strong passwords: Include at least one number, one symbol, one uppercase letter, and one lowercase letter Make the password at least 12 characters long Avoid repetition, dictionary words, letter or number sequences, and anything based on biographical information about yourself You will need to create the Moodle database and the database user before you run Moodle's installation routine; otherwise, the installation process will stop until you create the required database. Creating the database Moodle can use several types of databases. The recommended type is MySQL. There are many ways to create a database. If you are using a shared hosting service, you may have access to phpMyAdmin. You can use this to create the Moodle database and the database user. For detailed instructions, refer to https://docs.moodle.org/34/en/Installing_ Moodle#Requirements. Installation step 6 – Installing Moodle Configuration settings and variables tell Moodle where the database is located, what the database is called, the database user and password, the web address of the Moodle system, and other necessary information. All of these configuration settings must be correct for Moodle to run. They are stored in a file called config.php in Moodle's home directory. The next step is to run the installer to create the database tables and configure your new site. Moodle recommends using the command-line installer. If this does not work and you need another way (for example, on a Windows server), you can use the web-based installer. [ 42 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 To run the command-line installer, start by running the command line. It should be as your system's web user. Ensure that you know what it is—refer to your system's documentation (for example, Ubuntu/Debian is www-data and Centos is apache) Here's an example of using the command line as root—substitute www-data for your web user: # chown www-data /path/to/moodle # cd /path/to/moodle/admin/cli # sudo -u www-data /usr/bin/php install.php # chown -R root /path/to/moodle The chown commands allow the script to write a new config.php file. More information about the options can be found using this: # php install.php --help You will be asked for other settings, but all you have to do is to accept the defaults. For a full discussion, check out Administration via command line at https://docs. moodle.org/34/en/Installing_Moodle#Requirements. Web-based installer For ease of use, you can install Moodle via the web. Configure your web server so that the page cannot be accessible to the public until the installation is complete. To run the web installer script, just go to your Moodle's main URL using a web browser. The installation process will take you through a number of pages. Along the way, you should be asked to confirm the copyright, observe the database tables as they are generated, supply administrator account details, and supply the site details. The database creation can take some time—prepare to be patient. You should eventually end up at the Moodle front page with an invitation to create a new course. You should prepare to download the new config.php file and upload it to your Moodle installation—just follow the onscreen instructions. [ 43 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 Installation step 7 – Final configuration Take a look at the settings within Moodle and review the options within the Moodle Site administration screens (accessible from the Site administration tab in the Administration block). You will be able to include plugins and set up email and authentication: Administration | Site administration | Plugins | Message outputs | Email: Set your SMTP server and authentication if required (so that your Moodle site can send emails). The support contact for your site is also set on this page. Administration | Site administration | Server | System paths: Set the paths to du, dot, and aspell binaries. Administration | Site administration | Server | HTTP: If you are behind a firewall, you may need to set your proxy credentials in the Web proxy section. Administration | Site administration | Location | Update timezones: Run this to ensure that your time zone information is up to date. If you have any problems along the way, it's a good idea to visit Moodle's Installation FAQ. It is quite complete, and it is maintained so that it responds to users' commonly encountered issues. You can find it at https://docs.moodle.org/34/en/Installation_ FAQ. This is for version 3.4. It is important to keep in mind that Moodle updates are accompanied by updated Moodle doc pages. MoodleCloud basics MoodleCloud is a cloud-based solution that allows you to create your own account and start building courses and working with students for free (for upto 50 users). MoodleCloud allows you to develop an unlimited number of courses and activities, so it makes a very nice sandbox. It's important to keep in mind that there are several companies that offer hosting for Moodle. What makes MoodleCloud different is the fact that it was developed by the makers of Moodle and always has the latest, most stable version. [ 44 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 Getting started with MoodleCloud The first step is to create a new account. Go to the https://moodlecloud.com/en/signup/ chooseuser?plan=free and click on Create new account. Refer to the following screenshot: After you've created an account, you can choose a plan with MoodleCloud that accommodates the number of users you plan to have and how you'll need to organize your content. Keep in mind that with MoodleCloud, you have no limits with the number of courses you can develop. MoodleCloud options After you've set up your account, you'll have a number of options as you think of the universal settings you'll need for your courses. There are several different plans, each of which gives you more users, access to plug-in packages, and the ability to automatically generate customizable certificates. [ 45 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 There are a number of things to consider: Storage is limited (200 MB to 1 GB), which means that you will need to host your media in the cloud and link or embed a player Certificates are only available with the paid plans Plugin options are limited with the free plan Users are limited with the free plan Following is an image showing the various plans offered: [ 46 ] Installing Moodle Chapter 2 MoodleCloud can be an excellent solution if you're trying out Moodle for the first time or you need to experiment. It's also ideal for organizations that are using Moodle in innovative ways, such as event planning and project management. Summary From here, you can create user accounts, configure your site, add content to your site's front page and create courses. You can do these in any order, but I usually use the order presented in this chapter. Also, don't be intimidated into thinking that they must be perfect the first time. They can be changed and edited at any time. So, start with whatever you're most comfortable with, develop some momentum, and build your learning site. In the next chapter, we'll cover how to configure your site to create the kind of environment and experience that you want. [ 47 ] 3 Configuring Your Site Many settings that are made after the installation process affect the student and teacher experience in Moodle when they use the site. The focus of this chapter is on helping you create the user experience that you want by choosing the right settings. By configuring your site to enhance the user experience, you'll enhance their learning experience as well. In this chapter, you will learn how to configure your Moodle site. Specifically, we will learn how to set permissions, select default options, enable site administration, configure permissions, and enroll students. Note that in this book I will be using the MoodleCloud clean theme, although I will demonstrate other themes as well, particularly boost, since it is a default. The right column can be configured to add a block, such as a calendar. Configuring Your Site Chapter 3 Here's a screenshot using the MoodleCloud clean theme showing the front page, with the navigation bar on the left and available courses in the center: Being mindful of user experience As you prepare to consider your user experience, take a moment to reflect on how the user experience affects the student's ability to learn. You'll want to keep the learning objectives and outcomes first and foremost in the learner's mind. Then, you'll want to ensure that you clearly map the learning objectives to the course content, activities, and assessment. They need to make sense, and your learner should have an idea of how the activity or content will lead to the ability to perform the task and demonstrate skill or mastery. An easy way to maintain mindfulness of the user experience is to think of the mnemonic CORN: C Clear: Your outcomes should be clear, as should the process of working through the course. Think of a map and how it guides one to a final destination. A clear map contains just the right amount of information, is not superfluous, and provides help when needed. [ 49 ] Configuring Your Site Chapter 3 O Outcome-focused: Ensure that you're always tied to the learning outcomes, which are clearly stated at the outset. Then, ensure that each unit or module also contains objectives. Also ensure that you organize your course in a way that provides sufficient scaffolding so that the sequence makes sense. R Relevant: Although it can be interesting to include materials or activities that are not totally related to the course as enrichment, keep in mind that you could confuse or derail the student. The material should tie directly to the learning outcomes and should help students successfully complete the assessments. Likewise, the assessments need to be relevant and meaningful. N Needs-based: Provide the tools your students need to be able to perform their tasks. Also, ensure that their learning preferences are acknowledged and you're focused on meeting their needs. A prime determinant of user satisfaction is the degree to which the student feels in charge of their own destiny, something that requires one to develop a high degree of self-efficacy and an "I can do it!" attitude. Further, to motivate your students, you'll need to satisfy their needs. They may need a sense of recognition, and so building in rewards and recognition will be part of the way you configure your site. In this chapter, we're focusing on the settings. Later, we'll go into more depth about how to design and arrange the content, activities, and assessments. In all of these, you have choices. Many of the choices in settings that you make will be easy to decide. For example, will you allow your users to select their own time zone? Other choices are not so obvious. You can spend a lot of time trying different settings to see how they affect the user experience. These are the settings that we will focus on in this chapter. The goal is to save you time by showing you the effects that key settings will have on your site. If your system administrator or webmaster has installed Moodle for you, you may be tempted to just accept the default configuration and skip this chapter. Don't do that! Even if you did not install Moodle or are using MoodleCloud instead of Moodle onpremise, we encourage you to read the configuration sections in this chapter. If you want, work with your system administrator to select the settings that you want. Your administrator can create a site administrator account that you can use for configuring Moodle, or they can make these configuration settings for you. [ 50 ] Configuring Your Site Chapter 3 On-premise versus MoodleCloud This chapter primarily focuses on an on-premise installation that is fully customizable. However, what if you're using MoodleCloud, Moodle's cloud-based solution? The good news is that MoodleCloud is extremely customizable, and you will have a great deal of flexibility in the site administration area of the course. MoodleCloud (http://www.moodlecloud.com) is very economical and is a perfect site for teachers, instructional designers, and instructional technologists to develop templates, try out new designs, and pilot an entirely new curriculum or approach. In MoodleCloud, there is no limit to the number of courses you can set up. Your only limitation is the number of active users. Moodle is free for up to 50 users. After that, the pricing increases based on the number of users. For the free version, you will need to allow ads to appear. MoodleCloud is cloud-based, as the name indicates, and so you do not have to install anything on your computer or on a server. You will need the latest versions of your browser (Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari). Ensure that cookies are enabled for your site. MoodleCloud has been designed to be very efficient, and it is also responsive. One advantage of MoodleCloud is that you always have the latest version of Moodle, and when new capabilities emerge, you will be able to use them. For example, you are now able to configure your courses to be compatible with smartphones as well as with tablets, laptops, and computers, for a truly mobile solution. A potential disadvantage of MoodleCloud is that you do not have the same number of design options because there is a limited number of built-in themes, as opposed to an onpremise solution. Even though there are a few limitations, MoodleCloud includes features that are valuable to all designers, and you can add a wide array of multimedia resources and activities that include assessment and automatic badge and certificate generation. Preparing to experiment While this chapter describes the effects of different configuration choices, there is no substitute for experiencing them yourself. Don't be afraid to experiment with different settings. [ 51 ] Configuring Your Site Chapter 3 You can try the following method: 1. While installing Moodle, you created an account for the site administrator. Now, create test accounts for at least one teacher and three students. 2. Install three different browsers in your computer; for example, Firefox, Chrome, and Internet Explorer. 3. In the first browser, log in as an administrator. Use this account to experiment with the settings that you read about here. 4. In the second browser, go to your site as a teacher. Each time you change a configuration setting, refresh the teacher's browser and observe the change to see how the teacher version of it works. 5. In the third browser, go to your site as a student. Each time you change a configuration setting, refresh the student's browser and observe how it changes the student's experience. Instructions for each of these tasks are discussed in detail in the following sections. Creating test accounts These instructions begin where the installation ended—with you at the home page of your new site, logged in as the administrative user. To create test accounts for your site, do the following: 1. Before you go into Moodle, launch your note pad or a blank email. You'll use this to take notes. 2. If you're not logged in as the administrative user, log in now. Use the Login link in the upper-right corner of the page. 3. You should be looking at the home page of your new Moodle site now. 4. In the Administration menu on the left of the page, click on Site administration. This expands the Site administration menu. 5. Click on Users and then on Accounts. 6. Click on Add a new user. Moodle displays the Add a new user page. [ 52 ] Configuring Your Site Chapter 3 7. The following table gives information to help you decide how to fill out each field on this page. Some fields are required. Moodle indicates those fields with a red asterisk: Field Username Notes For the username, you may find it easiest to use the role that you are testing, so create usernames such as teacher1, teacher2, student1,...student4, and such. Choose an authentication method For your test accounts, this should be set to Manual accounts. New password Use your institution's password policy. To ensure that you type the password correctly, click on the Unmask checkbox. This enables you to see the password as you type it. In MoodleCloud, it is automatically unmasked. Force password change For your test accounts, leave this blank. First name and Surname Email address Email display Email activated Email format By default, when Moodle lists users, it sorts them by name. Often, it is convenient to have your test accounts appear next to each other in the list of users. Also, if they are at the top of the list, you don't need to scroll or search to find them. For your test users, consider using a last name like AATest, which will put them at the top of the list with just one click. The email address of every user in Moodle must be unique, so if you are creating six test accounts, you will need six different email addresses. Do you want other users on your site to see the email address for this test account? For a test account, set this to Hide my email address from everyone, unless you have a good reason for your students to know the email address of your test accounts. Also, you don't want a real student to get confused and email a test teacher account instead of their real teacher. You want your test account to receive emails while you are developing courses, so set this to This email address is enabled. To test how your site sends emails, you can set your odd-numbered users to pretty HTML format and your even-numbered users to plain text format. [ 53 ] Configuring Your Site Chapter 3 Field Notes When a user is subscribed to a forum, Moodle usually sends that user emails about new forum postings. This setting determines how often those emails are sent and what they contain. For testing, leave this to Email
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